Flexible ureteroscopy update: indications, instrumentation and technical advances
Retrograde ureteroscopy has recently gained a broadened indication for use from diagnostic to a variety of complex minimally invasive therapies. This review aims to look at the recent advances in the instrumentation and accessories, the widened indications of its use, surgical techniques and complications. With minimization of ureteroscopic instruments manufacturers are challenged to develop new, smaller and sturdier instruments that all will also survive the rigors of surgical therapy.
Ureteroscopy is defined as retrograde instrumentation performed with an endoscope passed through the lower urinary tract directly into the ureter and calyceal system. Wit